[133][134][135] The majority of Afghans supported the American invasion of their country. The Alokozay Kabul International Cricket Ground serves as the nation's main cricket stadium. The majority of training of the ANA is undertaken in the Afghan National Security University. He defeated Gurgin Khan and made Afghanistan independent. In 2019, Reporters Without Borders listed the media environment of Afghanistan as 121st out of 179 on its Press Freedom Index, with 1st being most free. [76][77] Following a 1927–28 tour of Europe and Turkey, he introduced several reforms intended to modernize his nation. [73] The Iron Amir viewed railway and telegraph lines coming from the Russian and British empires as "trojan horses" and therefore prevented railway development in Afghanistan. Humans lived in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. [404], Yaldā, another nationally celebrated ancient tradition,[405] commemorates the ancient goddess Mithra and marks the longest night of the year on the eve of the winter solstice (čelle ye zemestān; usually falling on 20 or 21 December),[406][407] during which families gather together to recite poetry and eat fruits—particularly the red fruits watermelon and pomegranate, as well as mixed nuts. Later, the Samanids extended their Islamic influence south of the Hindu Kush. Some of the famous artists of classical music include Ustad Sarahang and Sarban. [116] Taking control of Kandahar city that year,[113] they conquered more territories until finally driving out the government of Rabbani from Kabul in 1996,[117][118] where they established an emirate that gained international recognition from only three countries. The Kushans were overthrown by the Sassanids in the 3rd century CE, though the Indo-Sassanids continued to rule at least parts of the region. [58] Between the 16th and 18th century, the Uzbek Khanate of Bukhara, Iranian Safavids, and Indian Mughals ruled parts of the territory. There are several other stadiums throughout the country, including the Ghazi Amanullah Khan International Cricket Stadium near Jalalabad. The attacks are the latest in relentless violence in Afghanistan. Muslims brought Islam to Sassanian-held Herat and Zaranj in the mid-7th century, while fuller Islamization was achieved between the 9th and 12th centuries under the Saffarid, Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Ghurid dynasties. The Pakistani military has wielded significant influence over the Taliban and has had links with some of the leaders. [382][383] A notable art style that developed in Afghanistan and eastern Pakistan is Gandhara Art, produced by a fusion of Greco-Roman art and Buddhist art between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. Dostum's forces were defeated by the Taliban during the Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif (1997–98); Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff, Pervez Musharraf, began sending thousands of Pakistanis to help the Taliban defeat the Northern Alliance. The Minaret of Jam in the Hari River valley is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Of this, about 60% are males and 40% females. Afghanistan's rough physical geography and its landlocked status has been cited as reasons why the country has always been among the least developed in the modern era – a factor where progress is also slowed by contemporary conflict and political instability. Amid a state of anarchy and factional infighting,[109][110][111] various mujahideen factions committed widespread rape, murder and extortion,[110][112][113] while Kabul was heavily bombarded and partially destroyed by the fighting. [300] Government officials estimate that 30% of the country's untapped mineral deposits are worth at least $1 trillion. [205] Some Afghans retain some ability of Russian, which was taught to public schools during the 1980s. [128][116][129][130][131] By 2000 the Northern Alliance only controlled 10% of territory, cornered in the north-east. [341], As of 2018 the literacy rate of the population age 15 and older is 43.02% (males 55.48% and females 29.81%). [15][39], The religion Zoroastrianism is believed by some to have originated in what is now Afghanistan between 1800 and 800 BCE, as its founder Zoroaster is thought to have lived and died in Balkh. ", "How Afghanistan's mixed messages on homosexuality play into the Orlando shooting debate", "Afghanistan's Love-Hate Relationship With Homosexuality", "Afghanistan: More action needed to stop killings of human rights defenders", "Karzai Woos India Inc. as Delay on U.S. Pact Deters Billions", "Field Listing :: GDP – composition, by sector of origin – The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency", "The Taliban Is Capturing Afghanistan's $1 Trillion in Mining Wealth", "Interest Rate Cut in Place, Says Central Bank", "Afghani Falls Against Dollar By 3% In A Month", "Afghan Companies Say U.S. Did Not Pay Them", "Sales of Afghanistan's renowned carpets unravel as war intensifies", "Unlocking the Potential of Agriculture for Afghanistan's Growth", "AAN Q&A: An established industry – Basic facts about Afghanistan's opium-driven economy", "Afghanistan now world's top cannabis source: U.N.", https://www.arabnews.com/node/1602281/world, https://tolonews.com/afghanistan/28053-afghan-saffron-worlds-best, http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-12/25/c_138657013.htm, "Afghans say US team found huge potential mineral wealth", "Afghanistan signs '$7 bn' oil deal with China", China, Not U.S., Likely to Benefit from Afghanistan's Mineral Riches, "China Willing to Spend Big on Afghan Commerce", Indian Group Wins Rights to Mine in Afghanistan's Hajigak, "U.S. Identifies Vast Riches of Minerals in Afghanistan". [420] It is similar to polo, played by horsemen in two teams, each trying to grab and hold a goat carcass. The ongoing war between the government and the Taliban has contributed to the perpetuation of Afghanistan's problematic human rights record including complications of women's rights, with numerous abuses committed by both sides, such as the killing of civilians. [91] A Soviet-organized regime, led by Parcham's Babrak Karmal but inclusive of both factions (Parcham and Khalq), filled the vacuum. Is China really building a military base in the northern province of Afghanistan? About 21% of these are females. [290][291] In 2010, US and Afghan government officials estimated that untapped mineral deposits located in 2007 by the US Geological Survey are worth at least $1 trillion. In 2013, Afghanistan's football team followed as it won the SAFF Championship.[417]. Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. [314][315] Tourism peaked in 1977, the year before the start of political instability and armed conflict. The Mauryans controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush until they were overthrown in about 185 BCE. [342] The Afghan National Security Forces are provided with mandatory literacy courses. [369] The Mazari hat originates from northern Afghanistan.[370]. [310] In particular an important region for domestic and international tourism is the picturesque Bamyan Valley, which includes lakes, canyons and historical sites, helped by the fact it is in a safe area away from insurgent activity. It is very disciplined and professional military. A 2010 earthquake left 11 Afghans dead, over 70 injured, and more than 2,000 houses destroyed. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan; among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. They were followed by the Kidarites who, in turn, were replaced by the Hephthalites. [89], In September 1979, PDPA General Secretary Taraki was assassinated in an internal coup orchestrated by fellow Khalq member, then-Prime minister Hafizullah Amin, who assumed the new general secretary of the People's Democratic Party. Afghanistan had, therefore, good relations with both Cold War enemies. The root name "Afghān" is, according to some scholars, derived from the name of the Aśvakan or Assakan, ancient inhabitants of the Hindu Kush region. Occupying 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi), it is a mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest. [85] This would trigger a series of events that would dramatically turn Afghanistan from a poor and secluded (albeit peaceful) country to a hotbed of international terrorism. [212] Afghan Christians, who number 500–8,000, practice their faith secretly due to intense societal opposition, and there are no public churches. 1500–1100 BCE),[17] which has been closely associated with the culture depicted in the Avesta, the ancient religious texts of Zoroastrianism. [363] Child marriage is prevalent in Afghanistan;[364] the legal age for marriage is 16. The finalized Global Firepower ranking below utilizes over 50 individual factors to determine a given nation's PowerIndex ('PwrIndx') score with categories ranging from military might and financials to logistical capability and geography. [152] The number of NATO troops present in Afghanistan peaked at 140,000 in 2011,[153] dropping to about 16,000 in 2018. Therefore, "Afghanistan" translates to "land of the Afghans," or "land of the Pashtuns" in a historical sense. He fought for Article 68 of Afghanistan's 1923 constitution, which made elementary education compulsory. [64] The Afghan dynasty was ousted from Persia by Nader Shah after the 1729 Battle of Damghan. The country has more than 3,000 midwives, with an additional 300 to 400 being trained each year.[346]. [244] Relations with Pakistan have often been tense for various reasons such as the Durand Line border issue and alleged Pakistani involvement in Afghan insurgent groups. [307] However electricity is not always reliable and blackouts happen, including in Kabul. The Buddhist Turk Shahi of Kabul was replaced by a Hindu dynasty before the Saffarids conquered the area in 870, this Hindu dynasty was called Hindu Shahi. "[302], Access to biocapacity in Afghanistan is lower than world average. The nation is led by President Ashraf Ghani with Amrullah Saleh and Sarwar Danish as vice presidents. Afghans have served in the militaries of the Ghaznavids (963–1187), Ghurids (1148–1215), Delhi Sultanate (1206–1527), Mughals (1526–1858) and the Persian army. The Afghan armed forces fought many wars with Persia and … Afterward, the 1964 constitution was formed, and the first non-royal Prime Minister was sworn in.[82]. The other large cities are located generally in the "ring" around the Central Highlands, namely Kandahar in the south, Herat in the west, Mazar-i-Sharif and Kunduz in the north, and Jalalabad in the east. Attempts were made, often with the support of foreign donor countries, to improve the country's economy, healthcare, education, transport, and agriculture. Sport in Afghanistan is managed by the Afghan Sports Federation. [145][146], Taliban forces meanwhile began regrouping inside Pakistan, while more coalition troops entered Afghanistan to help the rebuilding process. The geography in Afghanistan is varied, but is mostly mountainous and rugged, with some unusual mountain ridges accompanied by plateaus and river basins. [372] The two famous Buddhas of Bamiyan were destroyed by the Taliban, who regarded them as idolatrous. [336] In rural Afghanistan, villagers often use donkeys, mules or horses to transport or carry goods. [250] Afghanistan is also the world's leading producer of opium. [40], Alexander the Great and his Macedonian forces arrived in Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia a year earlier in the Battle of Gaugamela. When it comes to foreign languages among the populace, many are able to speak or understand Hindustani (Urdu-Hindi), partly due to returning Afghan refugees from Pakistan and the popularity of Bollywood films respectively. The PDPA declared the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, with its first leader named as People's Democratic Party general secretary Nur Muhammad Taraki. A popular theme in Afghan folklore and mythology are devs, monstrous creatures. [220] A January 2010 report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime revealed that bribery consumed an amount equal to 23% of the GDP of the nation. The Afghan military was first formed in 1709 when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by the Durrani Empire. It's more than education.Visit Site: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicati...3- WikipediaVisit the site and learn things that you didn't know before.Visit Site: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page All the information are taken from:www.globalfirepower.comLike my Facebook page:https://www.facebook.com/Comparison-TV-363854587448091/ [45][46], Arab Muslims brought Islam to Herat and Zaranj in 642 CE and began spreading eastward; some of the native inhabitants they encountered accepted it while others revolted. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak, a local Ghilzai tribal leader, successfully rebelled against the Safavids. In 1838, the British marched into Afghanistan and arrested Dost Mohammad, sent him into exile in India and replaced him with the previous ruler, Shah Shuja. [393][392] Other notable masters of traditional or popular Afghan music include Nashenas, Ubaidullah Jan, Mahwash, Ahmad Wali, Farhad Darya, and Naghma. The country has high levels of terrorism, poverty, child malnutrition, and corruption. [421] The Afghan Hound (a type of running dog) originated in Afghanistan and was formerly used in wolf hunting. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest by the Greco-Bactrians. Since the 1900s, the nation began to use Western techniques in art. [391] Many Bollywood film stars have roots in Afghanistan, including Salman Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, Aamir Khan, Feroz Khan, Kader Khan, Naseeruddin Shah, Zarine Khan, Celina Jaitly, and a number of others. Between 2012 and 2019, the saffron cultivated and produced in Afghanistan was consecutively ranked the world's best by the International Taste and Quality Institute. [190] The Afghan hound is a native breed of dog known for its fast speed and its long hair; it is relatively known in the west. [93][94] Lasting nine years, the war caused the deaths of between 562,000[95] and 2 million Afghans,[96][97][98][99][100][101][102] and displaced about 6 million people who subsequently fled Afghanistan, mainly to Pakistan and Iran. [395] The dance is considered part of Afghan identity. [274] Some of the major national construction projects include the $35 billion New Kabul City next to the capital, the Aino Mena project in Kandahar, and the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Town near Jalalabad. An Outline of the History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722–1922)", "Great Britain's Great Game: An Introduction", In Defence of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East, 1775–1842, "Afghan Women Hope for More Gains Under New Administration – Afghanistan", https://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/east/01/21/afghan.rail/index.html, "Afghanistan: History Of 1973 Coup Sheds Light On Relations With Pakistan", "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths", "Genocide and the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan", "Landmines in Afghanistan: A Decades Old Danger", "Refugee Admissions Program for Near East and South Asia", "Afghanistan: Land Mines From Afghan-Soviet War Leave Bitter Legacy (Part 2)", 'Mujahidin vs. Communists: Revisiting the battles of Jalalabad and Khost, "Blood-Stained Hands, Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity", "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001", "Afghanistan: The massacre in Mazar-i Sharif. 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