Hill forts were huge things that could hold everyone in the village in times of attack. It is said that the first Iron Age hill forts built in Great Britain were made in 800BC. 2 miles south of Dorchester, Dorset. Here are some facts about Roman Forts. }, (function( timeout ) { })(120000); Roman forts, also known as castra, could be found all over the Roman Empire, to protect it from attack. It is truly an amazing place: even after more than 2000 years, the earthworks are immense, some ramparts rising to a height of 6 metres (20 feet). Crickley Hill is an Iron Age site in the Cotswold hills of Gloucestershire. Weapons and Warriors. The Celtic tribes lived in scattered villages. setTimeout( Throughout the present Celtic lands and in many of those areas once lived in by Celtic tribes, hill forts can be found. ramps and ditches, which were supposed to delay and confuse attackers. grew wheat and barley, and reared sheep, goats, pigs and cattle. Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset. The smoke from the fire escaped through a hole in the roof. The Iron Age Themed Research Map. Please reload the CAPTCHA. Celtic Facts and Timeline: 400 BC. They are typically European and of the Bronze Age or Iron Age. ACE. The Celts of Britain lived in a number of tribes which are now known by the Latin versions of their names. The Celts KS2. 224 BC. Some are interpreted as being defensive, some for settlement, some for storing grain and others simply for showing off. Celts also raised goats that were essential for milk. Some hillforts contain houses. Most Celts lived in scattered farming communities surrounded by a bank with wooden fencing and a ditch to keep out intruders and wild animals. In fact, Mam Tor and many others seem to have been peaceful summer shielings, used by Celtic tribes to watch over their flocks. Please reload the CAPTCHA. The houses in the north were made with large stones held together with clay. Farmers grew wheat and barley, and reared sheep, goats, pigs and cattle. 54 BC. Many people lived in hill forts to keep safe from attacks. display: none !important; There remains much evidence of Iron Age settlement in Cumbria, with hill forts, such as those at Castle Crag in Borrowdale and Dunmallard Hill, near Pooley Bridge, Ullswater. Some are ovoid, some are rectilinear, some have single ramparts (known as univallate hillforts) and some have many (known as multivallate). The spellings "hill fort", "hill-fort" and "hillfort" are all used in the archaeological literature. Time limit is exhausted. function() { The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill and consists of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. 1 The banks originally had strong wooden walls on top, but they have rotted away. KS2 History - Hill Fort Worksheet This worksheet tasks pupils with labelling the different feature of an Iron Age Hill Fort, along with a completed version for reference. Crickley Hill's Iron Age population within the fort was between 50 and 100: and the fort had a devastating end evidenced by the archaeological recovery of hundreds of arrow points. They were protected by wooden walls which kept enemies out. Wrong. ); This is the ninth lesson in the popular KS2History Stone Age to Iron Age Unit for KS2. The Celtic World Iron Age, Celtic, Hill Forts in Britain Maiden Castle. Jonathan West from Butser Ancient Farm talks about the Celtic way of life. Here are some facts about Iron Age hill forts (sometimes referred to as hillforts) in Britain. (function( timeout ) { It's the largest hill fort in Sussex and has a history dating back over 5,000 years. Defensive – Alfred the Great built a series of hill forts along the coastal hills of Wessex to guard against Viking attack. At the time of the Roman invasion in 43 AD the Brigantes were amongst the most powerful Celtic tribes in Britain. During the Iron Age, the Celtic people spread out across Europe and many settled in Britain. To role-play a debate in a Celtic settlement about whether or not to go into battle against a neighbouring tribe. Stories of fairies and elves. BBC animation - How to build a Round house, ©Copyright Mandy Barrow 2013 History KS2: Iron Age forts and tribes BBC Teach > Primary resources > KS2 History > Ancient Voices Archaeologist Raksha Dave explores Maiden Castle – the biggest Iron Age Hill Fort in Britain. Providing invaluable defensive strongholds, hill forts were a common feature of Bronze and Iron Age Europe. Its earliest fortification dates to the Neolithic period, ca 3200-2500 BC. Make a Celtic Cartoon with the BBC cartoon maker.  −  Iron Age eBook. }, He was the son of a Celtic king named Cunobeline and ruled Briton from 43-50 AD. Set high up on a chalk promontory, its ditch and ramparts enclose about sixty-five acres. Learn about the background of hill forts. Usually they followed the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. 58-51 BC. Please reload the CAPTCHA. Use in conjunction with our Hill Fort Activity Sheets.Tags in this resource: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png Aerial Iron age hill forts and settlements of the Britain . Image © Pikwizard. The Celts KS2 for kids learning at Primary School. Celtic warriors carried long, or oval shaped shields, spears, daggers and … 3 Ideal for helping with Key Stage 2 of the History National Curriculum Unit 6B: Why have people invaded and settled in Britain in the past? Teach KS2 children about hill forts, how and why they were built, as well as their limitations. }. To explore where hill forts are built and why they were built in those locations. Hill forts were raised defended settlements, often built on cliff tops or large knolls and spurs, that provided trading centres and secure enclosed habitats for people during the Bronze and Iron Ages. 191 BC . During the Bronze Age hill forts evolved to include roundhouses, longhouses and granary huts, as well as underground souterrains and fogous (underground cave structures used for food storage and preservation), before becoming more military focused through the Iron Age with guarded entrances, guard houses and ramparts integrated into them. The Celts believed that their Gods lived in streams, rocks and trees and they would throw precious objects into a river as a gift to the Gods. Instead they lived in separate tribes, with similar languages, religion, and customs. Many can be seen around the countryside today. KS2 children label the features of an Iron Age hillfort and explain the purpose of each feature. The archaeological record for these roundhouses is incomplete due to the decomposition of organic materials and the removal and reuse of their contents elsewhere. The largest and most complex Iron Age hill fort in Britain today is Maiden Castle in Dorset. In times of attack from another Celtic tribe, or from the ancient Romans, the fine retreated to a hill fort, which was built on top of a hill. Iron-Age Celtic tribes built strongly defended hill forts, which could be like small towns. The Celts would light a fire in the middle of the roundhouse for cooking and heating. Pre-Roman Britain – 1c Iron Age Hill Forts. 39 AD. To imagine what life might have been like in an Iron Age hill fort The lesson plan includes differentiation ideas to adapt the activities for the needs of your class. display: none !important; This map shows where in Britain they lived. timeout The huge empire stretched from northern England to North Africa and from Portugal to the Middle East. The Iron Age. Heritage – Maiden castle, an Iron Age hill fort once occupied by the Celtic Durotriges tribe, is now protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. var notice = document.getElementById("cptch_time_limit_notice_27"); ‘Maiden’ derives from the Celtic ‘Mai Dun’ which means ‘great hill’. As well as small communities, there were also large settlements and heavily defended forts. The resource includes a detailed lesson plan, Powerpoint and pupil resource sheets. Animals were often kept inside the house at night. Maiden Castle in Dorset. A full lesson for KS2 introducing Iron Age hillforts. (OS Map 194; ref SY 670885) The largest, and most spectacular, hill fort in Britain is at Maiden Castle in Dorset. Facts about Hill Forts Providing invaluable defensive strongholds, hill forts were a common feature of Bronze and Iron Age Europe. KS2 All About Celtic Art. Widespread – There are the remains of over 2,000 Iron Age hill forts in Britain today. … The photograph below shows both types of houses. By 200 BCE their civilization stretched across much of northern and western Europe.  =  To learn about Celtic tribes and hill fort settlements. Some Roman forts could hold up to 6,000 people. It ended in 43 CE. Iron Age Hillforts Lesson Plan 5 - Year 5 & 6 History. Free Online Games about the Ancient Celts for Kids. All Rights Reserved. Use in conjunction with our Hill Fort Activity Sheets.Tags in this resource: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png Many small early hillforts were abandoned, with the larger ones being redeveloped at a later date. They would probably have been abandoned during winter months. Access off A354. . The resource includes a detailed lesson plan, Powerpoint and pupil resource sheets. Habitable – The hill fort of Old Sarum was lived in up till the 19th Century. This resource can be used as a labelling exercise to assess pupils’ understanding, as a general resource to support writing or for display. Iron tools made farming much easier than before and settlements grew in size. The vast multiple ramparts enclose an area the size of 50 football pitches! But if there’s one thing they have in common, it’s that they’re all ontop of hills, right? Many people lived in hill forts to keep safe from attacks. Some are ovoid, some are rectilinear, some have single ramparts (known as univallate hillforts) and some have many (known as multivallate). if ( notice ) The name ‘Celts’ (pronounced ‘kelts’) is used to describe all of the people who lived in Britain and northwest Europe during the Iron Age – from 600 BC to 43 AD, which is when the Romans arrived. notice.style.display = "block"; It was surrounded by enclosure of stakes. Their construction came to a peak in Britain during the last 500 years BC, where numerous improvements were made to their defensive structures – such as extra lines of earthworks, stockades and defensive walls – due to the multiple invasions the country was subjected to that culminated in the Roman occupation from AD 43 onwards. Use maps to identify some well-known and local hill forts. Time limit is exhausted. Julius Caesar leads the Romans in the Gallic Wars Julius Caesar fails in attempt to invade Britain. From 700BC, iron became very popular in its use, which the Celtics also made use of upon their arrival in Britain in 500BC from Central Europe. KS2 All About Hill Forts PowerPoint. Houses in the south tended to be made from wattle (woven wood) and daub (straw and mud) as there was an ample supply of wood from the forests. Take part in a tribal discussion on the implications of going in to battle. They were full of wooden houses with thatched roofs made of straw. The name Maiden Castle may be a modern construction meaning that the hill fort looks impregnable, or it could derive from the British Celtic mai-dun, meaning a “great hill.” Maiden Castle – Image Credit : Google Earth 4 These are called hill-forts. 224 - 220 BC - Rome conquers the Celts. Homework help on the history of Celts, the Iron Age facts, Celtic life and Boudicca. An iron age hill fort with an intricate maze of . Iron Age Weapons (KS2): Fun Facts And Activities. notice.style.display = "block"; The picture below is a reconstruction of what another Celtic hill fort in Dorset, Hambledon Hill, might have looked like. While the most famous ones (like Ingleborough, Castle Bank and Old Oswes… The largest, and most spectacular, hill fort in Britain is at Maiden Castle in Dorset. The roof was made from straw with mud placed on top to keep the warmth in. The Southern Dobunni fought hard, continuing to rebel right up to the arrival of Ostorious Scapula. But if there’s one thing they have in common, it’s that they’re all ontop of hills, right? People lived in clans that belonged to tribes led by warrior kings. The National Trust (NT) has 79 hill-forts in its ownership. A hill fort, essentially a defended enclosure, was an elevated site with ramparts (defensive walls) made from earth, wood or stone, and a ditch dug along the site’s perimeter. These large man-made mounds of rock, wood, earth and dead animals, served as valuable fortifications against any attacking forces and created a series of ridged circular ditched rings that proved difficult to circumvent. function() { An iron age hill fort with an intricate maze of . Wrong. What was life like in an Iron Age hill fort? Iron Age Britain was a violent place. Please reload the CAPTCHA. Groups of houses built on top of hills were called hill forts – people living there could see if any enemies were coming just by looking out over the valleys, and could build strong walls around their hill to help defend it. Its multiple rampart enclosure is larger than the area of 50 football pitches and at its peak this colossal fort housed over 700 people. Hill forts were raised defended settlements, often built on cliff tops or large knolls and spurs, that provided trading centres and secure enclosed habitats for people during the Bronze and Iron … Celtic Farms . if ( notice ) timeout two It has identified 4,147 hillforts in Britain and Ireland, where formerly the number was thought to be 2,000. This was the era during which the use of iron to build tools and weapons became popular. But in others, such as Maiden Castle in Dorset and Danebury in Hampshire, there is evidence of an Asterix-style resistance to the Roman invaders. Teach KS2 children about hill forts, how and why they were built, as well as their limitations. Hillforts are what they sound like: forts built on hills. }, Despite their barbarous reputation in warfare, in a domestic setting they were far from primitive, employing many farming, construction and trade practices that were cutting edge for the time. Introduction to the Iron Age PowerPoint. Boudicca's Revolt. Use in conjunction with our Hill Fort Worksheets.Tags in this resource: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png There were huts and cattle enclosures standing ready at all times. timeout Animals such as cows, pigs and sheep were farmed and looked after in pens. A Celtic Roundhouse Worksheet .  −  Many can be seen around the countryside today. Hill forts were built on hilltops and surrounded by huge banks (mounds) of soil and ditches. if ( notice ) Perhaps one of […] Iron Age Fact Cards. eight Usually formed of huge earthen banks and ditches, hillforts come in all shapes and sizes.  ×  Hill forts (sometimes spelled hillforts) are essentially fortified residences, single households, elite residences, whole villages, or even urban settlements built on the tops of hills and/or with defensive structures such as enclosures, moats, palisades or ramparts--despite the name not all "hill forts" were built on hills. These are called hill-forts. Indeed, the main structure that characterizes most hill forts is its ramparts. Ye olde – The ‘golden age’ for hill fort construction was between 500 BC and AD 50. Hill forts first appeared in Wessex in the Late Bronze Age, but only become common in the period between 550 and 400 BC. Dùn Deardai in Scotland Throughout the present Celtic lands and in many of those areas once lived in by Celtic tribes, hill forts can be found. A hill fort, essentially a defended enclosure, was an elevated site with ramparts (defensive walls) made from earth, wood or stone, and a ditch dug along the site’s perimeter. This discovery had a dramatic impact on everyday life. The Celts were fierce warriors from central Europe. eight Maiden Castle is the largest Iron Age hill fort in Europe and covers an area of 47 acres. Play Some Celtic Games. Sometimes groups of houses were built on the top of hills. 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